Index for the Manuals

Entries in this index link directly to concepts within the manuals themselves. The links will take you to the start of the paragraph or section in which the term appears, so you may need to look for the words themselves within those paragraphs or sections. In some cases links will take you to the start of a whole chapter on that topic.

To search within a chapter, in Internet Explorer press Ctrl+F to bring up a Find box then type in the search term. In Safari, press Command+f (⌘+f).

The principal search terms for The News Manual are listed below in alphabetic order. Search terms with more than one entry are usually listed in the order in which they appear in the manuals.



absolute privilege - defamation
absolute privilege - conditions for
accuracy – an ordered mind
accuracy – and clear writing
accuracy – checking
accuracy – note making
accuracy – in translations
accuracy – in vox pops
accuracy - when reporting minorities
accuracy - rumour and speculation
accuracy - types of sources
accuracy - primary sources
accuracy - secondary sources
accuracy - reporting courts
accuracy - writing about courts
accuracy - and privilege
accuracy - and identity
accuracy - privilege & freedom of speech
active voice – grammar
active voice – sentence structure
actuality - for quoting
actuality – and vox pops
actuality - reporting crime
actuality - instead of quotes in radio
actuality - in bulletins
adjectives & adverbs - lively language
adjectives & adverbs - objectivity
adversarial system of law
advertising - in features
advertising - opinions
advertising - and personal conviction

agriculture - and industry
agriculture, fisheries & forestry
allegations - legal language
allegations - in intros
allegations - and defamation
almanacs - yearbooks
American English - language
American English - spelling
American English - style books
American English - dictionaries
anecdotes - in obituaries
anniversaries - of disasters
anniversary features
anti-terrorism laws
apologies and corrections
appeals - and contempt
athletics - results
attribution - and quotes
attribution - writing about crime
attribution - on radio and TV
attribution - conflicting sources
attribution - sources of information
attribution - on the record
attribution - non-attributable sources
attribution - off the record
audiences - for radio & TV

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background - in writing news stories
background - preparation
background - in follow-ups
background - from sources of information
background - from off-the-record sources
background - and contempt
background stories - in crime reporting
background stories - court reporting
backgrounders - feature writing
bad taste
bad taste - and obscenity
bail hearings
balance - in follow-ups
balance - reporting sermons
balance - fairness
balance - reporting elections
balance - court reporting
balance sheets - finance reporting
balance sheets - how to read them
basketball - results
beats (See also rounds)
Berne Convention on Copyright
bias - objectivity in language
bias - in reviewing
bias - in selecting sports correspondents
bias - and impartiality

blackmail - and the right to know
blackmail - criminal defamation
blogging - live
bowls - results
brackets - in grammar
braille - defamation in
breaking stories
breaking stories - a practical example
breaking stories - and follow-ups
bribery - dangers in rounds reporting
bribes - and favours
bribed - to journalists
bribes - gifts and freebies
bribes - criminal contempt
broadcasting - radio and TV bulletins
broadcasting - repetition
broadcasting - punctuation
broadcasting - using numbers
broadcasting - using abbreviations
broadcasting - pronunciation
bulletins - for radio and TV
bulletins - special

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cameras - news pictures
campaigning journalism
capital letters - punctuation
captions - for photographs
captions - television
captions - defamation
case law
catchlines - copy presentation
catchlines in in follow-ups
chief of staff
children - protecting
children - in court
children - in family court proceedings
citizen journalism
civil code legal systems
civil contempt
civil defamation - punishments
civil law
civil law (civil code law)
Cojuangco Case - confidential sources
collective nouns
columns - features
comment - and appeals
commentary columns
commerce - finance reporting
committal - proceedings
common law
common law legal systems
common law rights
common law - damages
common law - criminal libels
common law - definition of obscenity
Commonwealth English
Commonwealth English - spelling
Commonwealth English - style books
Commonwealth English - dictionaries
company records - finding information
conferences - press
confidentiality - investigative reporting
confidentiality - checking
confidentiality - naming sources
conflict of interest - in rounds reporting
conflict of interest - with acquaintances
conflict of interest - favours
conflict of interest - police contacts
conflict of interest - undivided loyalty
conjunctions - sentence structure
conjunctions - problems in translation
consistency - and court reporting
constitution - source of laws
constitution - and defamation laws
constructive criticism - writing reviews
contacts - books
contacts - and interviews
contacts - and media releases
contacts - rounds reporting
contacts - maintaining
contacts - political reporting
contacts - unions and employers
contacts - science & technology
contacts - crime reporting
contacts - investigative reporting
contacts - reporting death & disaster
contacts - fairness of

contemporaneous - reporting
contemporaneous - publishing
contemporaneous - and privilege
contempt - and investigative reporting
contempt - sub judice in investigating
contempt - and confidentiality
contempt - electronic recording in court
contempt - silencing writs
contempt - defence
contempt of parliament
context - historical
context - in explaining issues
context - with background details
context - news pictures
conventions and conferences
convictions - as evidence of truth
convictions - spent
copy - presentation
copy - phoning in
copy-takers - communicating with
copyright - and leaked documents
coroner's court
correcting unintentional defamation
correction & apology - defamation corrections and apologies
correspondents - sport
corruption - investigative reporting
corruption - checking facts
corruption - protecting documents
costs - in law
costs - and damages
court martial (See military courts)
court records - as sources of information
court reporting - fairness in
court reporting - rules of
court reporting in practice
court reporting - an actual case
court reporting - intros
court reporting - colour
court reporting - electronic recording
courts - case law
courts - the judiciary
courts - and privilege
courts - and contempt
courts (See also court reporting)
cricket - results
crime - introduction to reporting
crime - victimless
crime - reporting on
crime - writing about
crime - ethics of reporting
crimes - copycat
criminal contempt
criminal defamation
criminal law
criminal libels
criticism - of courts and judges
cross-checking - facts
cross -checking - sources
crowds - estimating size
crowds - demonstrations
current affairs - producers
customary law


damages - in civil law
damages - for defamation
damages - types awarded
dead - defaming
deadlines - for breaking stories
deadlines - don't panic
deadlines - for sports correspondents
debates - in features
deep fake
defamation - what you cannot do
defamation - what you can do
defamation - courts and parliaments
defamation - writing about crime
defamation - investigative reporting
defamation - blame
defamation - risks in reviewing
defamation & privilege - reporting courts
deterrence - reporting courts
development stories
diagrams - aiding understanding
diagrams - illustrate science stories
diagrams - illustrating crime stories

diaries - newsdesk
diaries - and follow-ups
diaries - for crime reporters
diary column
digital divide
dignity - of courts
dignity - scandalising the court
disasters - and death
disasters - reporting
divorce - family courts
divorce - evidence in court
divorce - court judgments
documentaries - anniversary
Donald Trump and social media
documents - protecting
drawings - illustrations
drawings - defamatory
duty reporters - staffing disaster coverage

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eavesdropping (see also electronic interception)
economic terms
editorial (See leader columns)
electronic interception
emergency planning
emergency procedure book
emotions - exaggeration

employers associations

entertainment - as news
entrapment - gathering evidence
epitomes - news pictures
ethics - introduction
ethics of the internet
euphemisms - in translation
euphemisms - in obituaries
exclamation marks
eyewitnesses - reporting death & disaster
eyewitnesses - as secondary sources

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Facebook - defamation on
facts - putting them first
facts and opinions
facts and opinions - proven facts
facts and opinions - probable facts
facts and opinions - and quotes
facts and opinions - attributing
fair comment - defamation
fair dealing - copyright
fair trial - court reporting
fair trial - committal proceedings
fair trial - prejudicial publications
fair trial - prejudicing
fairness - in letters columns
fairness - of legal system
fairness - defence in defamation
fairness - and privilege
fake news
family courts
favours - in rounds reporting
fear and alarm - creating
features - writers
features - using quotes
features - in science and technology
features - in crime reporting
features - structure

features for radio and television
features - the Three Ts
feedback - in reviews

finance - reporting
finance - guide to economics
fisheries, forestry & agriculture
FOI (See freedom of information)
follow-ups- after meetings
follow-ups - investigative reporting
follow-ups - death and disaster
freedoms - in society
freedoms - legal limits on
freedom of information - finding facts
freedom of speech - clash with traditions
freedom of speech - protecting sources
freedom of speech - fair comment
full stops

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golf - results
good faith - privilege
good faith - and sedition
good taste
grammar - clear writing
grammar - grammatical errors

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habeas corpus
headlines - investigative reporting
headlines for new media
health - as news
historical record - reviews
honesty - in obituaries
honesty - in judging facts and opinions

House of Lords - as court of appeal
human interest - as news
humour - news pictures
humour - taste and bad taste
hyphens and dashes

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identification - in law (See also identity)
identikit (See Photofit)
identity - necessary for defamation
identity - what is means in defamation
imputation - in defamation
in camera - evidence
indecent evidence
industrial disputes
injunctions - contempt
injunctions - silencing writs
innuendo - in defamation
interviewees with problems
interviews - translation
interviews - at press conferences
interviews - after press conferences
interviews - for vox pops
interviews - radio and TV vox pops
interviews - telephone

intro - what it is
intro - steps in writing
intro - rules for writing
intro - length
intro - short and simple
intros - in reviews
inverted pyramid - shape of news story
inverted pyramid - writing news stories
investigative reporting - introduction
investigative reporting - in practice
investigative reporting - writing
investigative reporting - industry & finance
investigative reporting - revelations
irony - in defamation
Islamic law

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Jackson, Michael - and copyright
jargon - rounds reporting
jargon - political
jargon - reporting finance
jargon - science and technology
jargon - legal
jargon - reporting death and disaster
journalists - motives
journalists - qualities
judges - the judiciary
judges - in court

judges - and contempt
judges - in defamation
judges - assessing damages
jury - their role
jury - in court proceedings
jury - and contempt
jury - and appeals
jury - in defamation
jury - assessing damages
justification - defence in defamation

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key points - in intro writing
key points - in writing the news story
key points - ranking
key points - obituaries


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Lady Chatterley's Lover - obscenity trial
language - love of
language - simplicity in news writing
language - simplicity in science writing
language - importance
language - words
language - grammar
language - translation
language - accuracy in legal terms
language - avoid vague words
language - reporting death and disaster
language - for radio & TV
language - for new media
language - repetition for radio
language - tenses for radio & TV
language - using concrete words
language - in crime reporting
language - investigative reporting
language - death and disaster
language - 'No comment'
language - fairness
language - swearing and bad taste
language - legal
language - scandalising
language - prejudicial to a fair trial
language - words that change
language - obscene
languages - spoken by minorities

lead (See intro)
leader columns - facts and opinions
leader columns - fairness
leaked documents - as source of news
leaked documents - non-attributable
leaked documents - copyright on
leave to appeal
legal aid
legal systems of the world
legislation - source of law
legislature - source of laws
legislature - contempt of parliament
Lennon, John - and copyright
letters to the editor - facts and opinions
letters to the editor - and defamation
libel (See also defamation)
lies - probable
lies - dangers of
literary merit - defence against obscenity
live commentary - sport
Lose/Gain Test

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magistrates - in judiciary
magistrates - and committal proceedings
malice - investigative reporting
malice - in court reporting
malice - and privilege
malice - and qualified privilege
malice - in defamation
malice - and criminal defamation
McCartney, Paul - and copyright

media conferences
media releases
meetings - and speeches
meetings - reporting
messaging and emails
military courts
minorities - reporting on
mobile journalism (MoJo)
modems - communications
Monroe, Marilyn - obituary
moral issues - reporting religion
morality - privacy and public interest
morgue - obituaries
multilingual radio & TV
music - in radio & TV

music - in radio & TV features

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names - and titles
narration - in radio & TV
new media
new media - issues to consider
new media - law
new media - platforms
new media - tools
news bubbles
news - definition
news - categories
news - education
news - good news in rounds reporting
news - good news as a feature subject
news - good news features
news - human face in politics
news - human face in industry & finance
news criteria
news judgment
news judgment - newsworthiness
news angle
news angle - in press releases
news angle - in radio & TV features
news angle - local
news editor
news flashes - breaking stories on radio
news flashes - special bulletins
news sense
news sense - rounds reporting
news sense - science & technology

news story - length
news story - shape
news story - writing
news story - key points
news story - sequence and continuity
news story- from press conferences
news story - from vox pops
news stories - getting facts and evidence
news stories - gathering evidence
news value - rounds reporting
news value - reporting crime
news value - investigative reporting
Nixon, Richard - revelations about
Nixon, Richard - honest obituaries
no comment
notebooks - when interviewing
notebooks - and defence against contempt
notes - and translation
notes - recording interviews
notes - at speeches and meetings
nouns - objectivity

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obituaries - features
objective journalism
objectivity - science and technology
objectivity - sensitivity reporting minorities
objectivity - campaigning journalism
objective language
obscenity - and bad taste
obscenity - criminal libels
off the record
off the record - at press conferences
off the record - reporting politics
official secrecy laws
Okuk, Iambakey - obituary
on the record
on the record - at press conferences
on the record - reporting politics

open questions - interviewing
open questions - in vox pops
opinions - in intros
opinions - attributing
opinions - and facts
opinions - verifiable
opinions - expert
opinions - personal
opinions - investigative reporting
opinions - fair comment
order of mandamus
overloading - intros
overloading - news stories
overloading - simplicity
overloading - language
overloading - unnecessary words

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paired negatives
paragraph length
parliament - privilege
parliament - contempt of
passive voice - and active voice
passive voice - when to use it
persistence - journalist qualities
persistence - when interviewing
personality - in obituaries
Photofit - from police
Photofit - illustrating crime stories
pictures - sequences
pictures - taking group pictures
pictures - sport
plaintiff - in civil law
plaintiff - in defamation
plaintiff - identity
plaintiff - and damages
planning - for the breaking story
police - rounds
police - contacts
police - appeals
police - writing appeals
police radios - monitoring
police - role in law
police - and courts
police - and legal deterrence
police prosecutor
politicians - private lives
politics - opposition sources
politics - elections
politics - fairness reporting elections
predictions - fairness of making
prejudice - colour in reporting courts
prejudice - in reporting committals
prejudice - criminal contempt
prejudice - danger for reporters
prejudice - possible defence
prejudice - 'without prejudice'
press cards - police
press conferences
press conferences - police

press officers
press officers - dealing fairly with
press officers - as secondary sources
press releases
press releases - police
press releases - dealing fairly with
pressures - on journalists
pressures - government
pressures - commercial
pressures - police
pressures - family
pressures - tradition
presumption of innocence in common law
presumption of innocence - remands
presumption of innocence - arrests
previews - features
previews - sport
privacy - and public interest
privacy - right to
privilege - protection from defamation
privilege - courts and parliaments
privilege - absolute and qualified
privilege - defence in defamation
privilege - and obscenity
problem words
Profumo, John - public interest
pronunciation - style guides
pronunciation - checking accuracy
public benefit - defence in obscenity
public figures - and privacy
public interest - and privacy
public interest - and privacy
public interest - and defence of truth
public interest - meaning in defamation
public opinion - surveys by vox pops
public opinion - preparing surveys
publication - in defamation
punctuation - basic rules
punctuation - style guides
punishment - reason for laws
punishment - reasons for reporting courts
punishment - for defamation
purging contempt
pyramid of pyramids story structure

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qualified privilege
question marks
questions - clarifying questions
quotation marks
quotes - not in the intro
quotes - in the news story
quotes - punctuation
quotes - partial and incomplete
quotes - and objectivity
quotes - from speeches and meetings
quotes - in vox pops
quotes - in crime reporting
quotes - in radio
quotes - in obituaries
quotes - on the record

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radio - bulletins
reading rate - pace
reading rate - timing bulletins
reading rate - calculation
recording in court
reference books
reliability - qualities of journalists
reliability - of facts
religious law systems
remand - in custody
remand - on bail
religion - as source of news
religion - reporting
reported speech - what is it
reported speech - use
reported speech - changing words
reporting restrictions - in committals
reputation - injury to
reputation - calculating damage to
research - preparing for rounds
revelations - news pictures
revelations - features

reviewers - specialist writers
reviewing for amateurs and influencers
reviews - features
reviews - audience
reviews - timing
reviews - facts and opinions
reviews - fairness
reviews - and copyright
reviews - protection of fair comment
right of reply - privilege
right to know - investigative reporting
royalties - copyright
royalty - privacy and public interest
rugby - scores
rumour - and speculation
rumour - and defamation
rumours - death & disaster
running stories - crime

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scandalising the court - contempt
scare quotes
science - reporting
science - writing about
scripts - radio and TV
search engine optimisation (SEO)
security laws
security - on new media
sedition and national security laws
self confidence - with contacts
self confidence - writing reviews
sensationalising - science & technology
sensitivity - death & disaster
sensitivity - privacy and grief
sentences - length
sentences - structure
sermons - reporting
Sharia law
shorthand - for making notes
shorthand - value in reporting courts
shorthand - speeds for court reporters
silencing or SLAPP writs
Singh, Khushwant - on gifts
slang - and partial quotes
soccer - scores
social media
social media - best practice
social media - ethics
social media - fact checking
social media - for journalists
social media - law
social media - platforms for publishing
social media - production tools
sound effects - reporting science
sound effects - in news features
sources - attributing facts and opinions
sources - reliable
sources - for follow-ups
sources - choosing for fairness
sources of information
sources of information - politics
sources of information - within minorities
sources of information - reporting crime
sources of information - investigations
sources of information - credibility
sources of information - confidentiality
sources of information - reliability
sources of information - primary
sources of information - secondary
sources of information - anonymous
sources of information - refusing to name
speculation - and rumour
speculation - and predictions
speeches - as sources of news
speeches - reporting

spelling - different systems
spelling - newsroom styles
spelling - checking after interviewing
spent convictions
sport - as source of news
sport - reporting
sport - writing about
sport - in different media
sport - statistics on popularity
sport - results
sport - league tables
sport - reports
sport - horse racing
standards of journalism
stand-ups - in TV reporting
statute of limitations - in defamation
stereotypes - reporting minorities
stereotypes - taste and bad taste
stolen property - and leaked documents
stop press - newspaper breaking stories
story arcs
story structure - inverted pyramid

story structure - in complex stories
story structure - chronology
story structure - pyramid of pyramids
story structure - politics
story structure - story arcs in radio & TV
style books - help in language

style books
styles of journalism
sub judice
sub judice - investigative reporting
sub judice - defamation and privilege
sub judice - and committals
sub judice - prejudicial publications
sub judice - defence against contempt
subordinate clauses - facts first
subordinate clauses - place in sentences
subpoena - failure to obey
subpoena - to name a confidential source
suicide - reporting
surveys - use in vox pops
surveys - how to conduct
swearing - bad language

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tag - use in quotes
talkback radio - sharing opinions
tape editing - in vox pops
tape recorders - for interviews
tape recorders - at speeches & meetings
tape recorders - note taking
tape recorders - at press conferences
tape recorders - for vox pops
technology - reporting
technology - writing about
television - writing for
television - bulletins
telephone interviews
tennis - results
tenses - up-to-date
terrorism and anti-terrorism laws
third party - publication in defamation
third party - in criminal defamation

threats - investigative reporting
threats - pressures on journalists
threats - criminal contempt
tip-offs - rounds
titles - in intros
titles - use in quotes
titles - punctuating
titles - in translation
totalitarian legal systems
trade unions
tradition - pressures on journalists
tradition - customary law
travel arrangements - getting to the scene
treatment - in radio & TV
Trust Chain
truth - defence in defamation
two-way radios

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unfamiliar words
unintentional defamation
unnecessary words
unpublishing online

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value judgments - personal opinions
verbs - lively language
verbs - and objectivity
verbs - problems in translation
verdict - and sub judice
verdict - and mention of prior convictions
visualising - during interviews
visualising - use to check
visualising - press releases
visualising - meaning of numbers
visualising - scenes of crime
visualising - the crime

voices and interviews

voice reports - phoning stories

voir dire
vox pops - what they are
vox pops - conducting

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War of the Worlds - fear and alarm
Watergate - bugging and wire tapping
weasel words
wire tapping laws
without prejudice
witnesses - interviewing during court case
world legal systems
writing - for new media and social media
writing style - basics
writing style - words
writing style - grammar
writing style - translation
writing style - style books
WWWWWH - writing the intro
WWWWWH - keep it simple
WWWWWH - missing details
WWWWWH - visualising
WWWWWH - death and disaster
WWWWWH - captions



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What's New in News

The peddlers of hate should bear some responsibility for tragedies such as the multiple murders in Pima, Arizona. But so too should journalists.

Other Resources
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